Due to the spread of the corona epidemic in our country since the beginning of last year, many people had to work from home. Meanwhile, we saw some people growing various crops in their homes. There was a greater focus on composting than on chemical fertilizers.
So in today’s article we are talking about compost.
Briefly about compost manure
Compost production is the process by which microorganisms decompose plant parts and animal wastes to produce simple organic matter such as humus. These fertilizers are considered to be the main organic fertilizers of commercial value.
The production of compost makes our environment cleaner. Needless to say, this is very helpful for waste management, especially in an urban environment. Therefore, compost production can also be termed as a method of systematic management of waste.
The main methods of making compost manure
Different methods are used to produce compost. Below are 4 methods used for that.
1) Lots of methods
2) Barrel system
3) The method of
4) Frame system
Of the above methods, compost manure can be easily used in composting.
Steps to follow in landing
There are several steps you can take to begin the process of preparation for composting.
1) Select a suitable site for composting
2) Adjust the selected location to make it suitable for fertilizer production
3) Collection of raw material required for fertilizer production
4) Laying the collected raw material in layers
5) Preparation of compost manure by laying in layers
6) Remedies to speed up decomposition
7) Test the moisture in the manure pile
8) Cover the manure pile
9) Fertilizer dumping
10) Moisture testing of manufactured fertilizers
Selecting a suitable place to make fertilizer
To make compost using the pile method, a place where the raw material is easily available should be selected. It should also be a place where raw materials and compost produced can be easily transported. Moreover, it should be a non-flooded area.
Also, make sure that there are no houses, wells, or water sources near that area.
Preparation of fertilizer production site
After selecting a suitable soil, it should be prepared in a manner suitable for fertilizer production. The land has to be cleared first. Then the pebbles should be removed and the ground leveled. If the soil surface is loose, it should be well compacted. It is also important to prepare the drainage system for good drainage.
The following materials can be used to make compost manure.
1) The most common types of leaves, grasses, aquatic weeds and crop residues you can find in the area.
2) Easily obtainable animal waste
3) Some compost produced (for applying as yeast – about 20 kg of yeast per 1000 kg of raw material should be applied)
4) Eppawala Rock Phosphate Fertilizer (Approximately 50 kg of rock phosphate should be applied per 1000 kg of raw material)
5) Water to moisten the raw material
6) A black wax cloth to cover the manure
A plan of the compost manure pile that is expected to be produced first must be drawn to the ground with a stick. The size of the compost heap is determined by the availability of raw material available. If the raw material is abundant, an area of maximum length of 14-15 feet and maximum width of 5-6 feet should be marked. Otherwise small piles should be prepared. Then the layers should be prepared using leaf waste and animal manure waste. The bottom layer can be prevented by applying a layer under the leaves or leafy branches.
The prepared layers are compacted to form a compost pile. Generally, yeast should be sprayed every 2-3 layers during construction. Also rock phosphate spraying should be done every 3-4 layers. In addition, a layer of animal waste should be applied every 2-3 layers of plant material. Once the non-perishable raw material (dry leaves, straw, wood powder) is deposited in a layer on top of the manure, a layer of animal manure or yeast can be applied on top of it to speed up the decomposition.
Cover and test for moisture
Green leaves contain moisture and decompose quickly. But when using dry leaves or dry animal manure, apply the required amount of water. Also, after the compost pile is formed by adding layers, enough water should be added.
Cover with black polythene, woven coconut twigs or polysack bags to allow air to enter the compost heap. Maintaining the cover at a height of 6-12 inches above the ground level allows air to enter and exit the manure pile. When the manure is well ventilated, the decomposition takes place quickly.
After 6-7 days of covering the manure pile, remove the cover and insert a pointed piece of wood into the pile and then take it out and touch the edge of the wood to get an idea of the moisture in the manure pile. If the moisture in the manure pile is low, a wooden hole should be made in the surface of the pile and water should be applied. After that the manure pile should be closed again. The first fall of such a pile of manure takes place a month later. Moisture should be checked once every week during that period. If there is not enough moisture, water should be applied.
The compost heap should be rolled three times in different periods. Below is how the manure is rolled in each of those seasons.
- After about a month, remove the cover and roll the pile well.
- The rotten parts should be flipped over so that they mix well.
- When rolling, the yeast should be sprayed and mixed well.
This causes the yeast to mix into all areas.
After the first flip, as mentioned earlier, the re-covered pile should be checked for moisture every 6-7 days and water should be applied if required.
- The cover is removed about 2 months after construction or about a month after the first roll and the second roll is done.
- This roll is also done like the first roll. Watering should also be done if necessary.
- There too the yeast should be added and mixed.
- The pile should be covered even after the second roll.
After that, check the moisture every 6-7 days and apply water if necessary.
- The third roll is done 3 months after the build up or about a month after the second roll.
- This roll is done in the same way as the first and second roll and is repositioned and closed.
- By this time most of the raw material has decomposed and the compost produced can be used when needed.
- It is best to close the pile completely after the third roll. This is to prevent insects from laying eggs in the compost pile.
It is sufficient to roll a lot of compost a maximum of three times. In the case of commercial compost manure, the manure can be sifted through a 4 mm net and then marketed. Once drained, the remaining coarse parts of the net can be added back to the compost heap and used as raw material.
Moisture testing of manufactured fertilizers
When testing the moisture content of the produced manure, first apply a small amount of compost manure and squeeze well. If water droplets come out of the fingers, it can be concluded that the moisture in the compost fertilizer mixture is high. In doing so, it can be concluded that there is an optimum moisture content if the compost is formed in a poor quality and easily broken without leaving water. But in the commercial production of compost manure, its moisture must be tested accurately by a laboratory.